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We added new mitogenomic sequence data from six cichlid species and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large mitogenomic data set.
Of the 425 teleostean families, 181 families do not have a fossil record.
Of the remaining 244 that have fossil records, 58 have only otoliths .
Therefore, alternative methods that may provide effective time constraints in dating teleostean divergences should be explored, e.g., methods based on reasonable biogeographic assumptions.
However, the fossil records of bony fishes may not adequately provide effective time constraints at multiple nodes.
We explored an alternative source of time constraints in teleostean phylogeny by evaluating a biogeographic hypothesis concerning freshwater fishes from the family Cichlidae (Perciformes: Labroidei).